- Occupational Safety and Hygiene – SHO Conference 26-27 marzo 2018 – Guimaraes Portogallo
1) Stress misconduct and reduced ability to express dissent: A study on a sample of students at the University of Siena
O. Parlangeli, P. Palmitesta, M. Bracci, E. Marchigiani, P. Linston
The safety of socio-technical systems depends on a multitude of factors, including stress levels and compliance with relevant ethical principles. A recent study has identified a relationship between stress and unethical behaviour in specific areas such as scientific research (Parlangeli et al., 2017a; Parlangeli et al., 2017b). This paper reports a study conducted on students at the University of Siena in order to examine whether a relationship between stress and ethical behaviour can be identified in student populations. The results indicate a clear relationship between stress levels and the perception of the frequency of unethical behaviours. Of particular interest are the data suggesting how stress levels can negatively impact respondents’ abilities to manifest dissent or disagreement, thus depriving people who experience high stress levels of the ability to contribute to the construction of workplaces characterised by honesty and integrity.
- IEA - International Ergonomics Association Conference - 26-30 Agosto 2018 – Firenze
1) Developments and problems in the man-machine relationship in Computed Tomography (CT)
Claudia Cassano, Antonella Colantuono, Guido De Simone, Alessandra Giani, Paul M. Liston,, Enrica Marchigiani, Gislain Talla, Oronzo Parlangeli
Over the last few years the use of Computed tomography (CT) has become increasingly widespread. Despite the common usage of CTs, their usability and their suitability as safe diagnostic tools have not been subjected to scrutiny. The purpose of this study is to understand the evolution of the relationship between users (i.e. technical operators) and the complexity of a technological system such as that of the CT in a normal operational context. To this end, two studies were conducted employing ethnographic observations seven years apart. This paper compares these two studies from 2011 and 2018. The results show a significant difference in the timing of the activity relative to the interaction with the technology, while there are no significant differences in relation to the interactions with the patient and the problem situations that may occur during the CT examination.
2) The evolution of Computed Tomography (CT) and its user interface: a contextual and comparative analysis of some of the most used solutions
Oronzo Parlangeli, Alessandra Giani, Federico Baccetti, Ilaria Bonanno, Ylenia Iervolino, Marino Todisco, Renzo Ricci, Stefano Guidi
The study presented in this paper was aimed at analyzing the user interfaces of Computed Tomography (CT) scanners and comparing three different systems used in two hospitals in Tuscany, Italy. Heuristic evaluations were conducted to measure the level of usability of these systems. The results show that the three systems have similar, but not equal, usability, that they rely heavily on operators’ competences, and are not designed and implemented to facilitate the execution of complex tasks.
3) User-Interface and operators: Evolution in the perception of Computed Tomography (CT)
Oronzo Parlangeli, Alessandra Giani, Margherita Bracci, Ilaria Bonanno, Antonio Conte, Veronica Del Priore, Anna Di Genova, Angela Lucia
Computed Tomography (CT) is the most used clinical examination to produce cross-sectional images of the body. The main objective of the study reported here is to analyze the CT operators’ perceptions in relation to the evolution of the technology they use, with a specific focus on the usability of the user interface. The study is based on the consideration that the performance of the whole man-machine system is strictly dependent on the perception/experience that the operator has of the machine. To this aim, current opinions expressed by 6 operators have been compared to those collected in a study conducted in 2011. Results reveal a high level of satisfaction with the technology in use, but the hope for a even better operability in the future, which was expressed in 2011, seems to be no longer valid today.
4) Digital Discrimination: An Ergonomic Approach to Emotional Education for the Prevention of Cyberbullying
Bracci M., Duguid A.M., Marchigiani E., Palmitesta P., Parlangeli O.
The aim of this study is to shed some light on the complex relationship between cognitive, socio-affective and contextual (i.e. the technology and the way in which it is used) factors, which intervene in the context of prosocial and antisocial behavior, both in the real and virtual world. Results coming from a survey with a sample of 264 subjects show that those who perform victimization on the Internet are more likely to be more dependent on the use of the Internet and stay on social networks for more time in a day. In addition, while the aggressive behavior and the disengagement seem to be more correlated with a detachment towards the victim and therefore to a lower level of affective empathy, the helping behavior seems to be characterized by a greater cognitive capacity and a greater understanding of the other.
- ICERI Conference - 10th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation 16th, 17th and 18th of November 2017, Seville
1) STRESS AND UNETHICAL BEHAVIOUR IN THE RESEARCH OF UNTENURED UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS
Oronzo Parlangeli, Margherita Bracci, Stefano Guidi, Enrica Marchigiani, Paul M. Liston
The relationship between stress, uncertain work contracts and the incidence of unethical behaviour in research has not been investigated thus far either in Italy or abroad. This despite the fact that while the job of a researcher is increasingly “insecure” and the practice and reporting of research is also under increased scrutiny regarding its adherence to the ethical principles of truth, honesty, respectful collaboration, and accurate reporting. The present study seeks to bridge this gap in knowledge on this complex phenomenon. An online survey is currently being administered – already completed by over 390 untenured researchers. The survey is designed to assess the risk of stress to this growing category of researcher – something considered important to establish given the increasing role these researchers play in the profile of research conducted in Italy. The questionnaire is composed of standardized sections aimed at assessing the perceived stress level (PSS-4), the stress risk factors (HSE) and sections developed for this study which aim to investigate the incidence of unethical behaviour related to the world of university research in general and that related to the individual. The data collected so far highlight a significant risk of stress related to several factors and a clear relationship between these, the level of insecurity of job contracts and the occurrence of unethical behaviours.
2) STRESS AND PERCEPTIONS OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOURS IN ACADEMIA
Oronzo Parlangeli, Paola Palmitesta, Margherita Bracci, Maria Cristina Caratozzolo, Paul M. Liston, Enrica Marchigiani
The study presented herein explores the possibility of identifying a relationship between stress and theperception of non-ethical behaviours in the academic sphere.
Four Departments of the University of Siena in Italy were requested to collaborate on this study. 70 academics completed an online questionnaire to investigate:
1 stress-inducing organisational factors (HSE),
2 the perception of frequency and severity of certain categories of unethical behaviour, and
3 the propensity to manifest their dissent in response to these same behaviours.
The results highlight the occurrence of conditions that may contribute to stress. Among them, the "lack of proper support from superiors and colleagues" and the "clear definition of work commitments" seem to be expressed as problematic, especially for professors in the over 55 age range.
The results of the analysis of unethical behaviours indicate an unexpected relationship between the perception of the frequency of inappropriate behaviours, the assessment of their severity and the individual propensity to manifest dissent. These results, once again, seem to be particularly relevant
for faculty who are more advanced in age.
It was also possible to highlight a relationship between stress conditions and unethical behaviours. In particular, in academic terms, stress seems to have an impact on the perceptions of unethical behaviours and the clear expression of personal dissent.