Submissions and Author guidelines


All submitted manuscripts are initially reviewed by one or more members of the editorial team to determine if the manuscript is appropriate for peer review. Those advanced to the next stage undergo a double-blind peer review process. The review process is ordinarily completed within 2 months from the date of submission. All submissions must be sent to the editors at

Author guidelines

Manuscript length

Original manuscripts must not exceed 10,000 words in length. This includes the main text, all tables and figures, the list of references and all footnotes, but excludes the abstract, the title page and all appendix materials. Overlength manuscripts will be returned to the authors. We do not make exceptions here.


File format

We accept the following file formats: Microsoft Office and compatible formats. We do not accept PDF submissions.



Prepare manuscripts in 12-point font, double spaced, with margins of one inch on all sides, and formatted for A4 (8.26 x 11.69 inch) paper. Right-hand margins should be ragged, not justified. Turn off hyphenation. Text, references and a list of Figure captions should be included, without any character and paragraph style formatting.


Symbols and units

The conventions for abbreviations of units and symbols are those recommended by the British Standards Institution (leaflet B.S. 5775).



Manuscripts should be in either British or American English consistently throughout.



Use the Harvard style of referencing. Separate all references by two hard returns; do not indent turnover lines (the second and subsequent lines of a reference).

In the case of books and chapters in books, the reference should include details of the publisher and the place and date of publication; in the case of journal articles, the references should include details of the volume and issue number of the journal, as well as the page numbers. Page numbers should also be indicated in references to chapters in books. We recommend the use of a tool such as Endnote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.


Tables and illustrations

Tables and figures should be submitted as separate files, with their location noted in the text (e.g., Table 1 about here). The preferred format for tables is Microsoft Excel. We will typeset the tables, graphs and diagrams (illustrations). Table and figure references should be in a consistent style: (e.g., Table 1; Figure 1). Captions for illustrations should be listed in a separate file.


Headings and subheadings

Type these at the left margin (do not centre or indent), utilising the following simplified hierarchy: (a) upper case throughout (no full point at the end), preceded and followed by two hard returns, (b) upper (first letter of first word) and then lower case (no full point at the end), preceded and followed by two hard returns, (c) upper (first letter of first word) and then lower case (no full point at the end), preceded and followed by two spaces, then text. Separate all paragraphs by two hard returns.



The editor retains the right to make minor stylistic changes to the finally accepted typescript. Any substantial changes will, of course, be referred back first to the author.


Title page

The title page of the author-identified manuscript should include all of the following:

  • Manuscript title
  • Name, affiliation and contact information of the author